雅思写作开头段基本结构及改写策略

雅思作文开头段一般30-60字,2-3句话,包括三项任务:引出现象/问题,重述题目的观点,给出自己的观点。部分同学喜欢花很多笔墨去写背景(比如“随着社会和经济的发展”这类背景),这是完全没有必要的,因为这类大背景往往与作文要讨论的话题并无直接关联。我们建议,无论遇到什么题目,都应直入主题,即直接写现象/问题,然后重述题目观点,最后给出自己观点。如:

Some experts believe that it is better for children to begin learning a foreign language at primary school rather than secondary school. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages? (《剑桥雅思9》,test 1

下面是该书给出的高分范文开头段:

Traditionally, children have begun studying foreign languages at secondary school, but introducing them earlier is recommended by some educationalists. This policy has been adopted by some educational authorities or individual schools, with both positive and negative outcomes.

本段共37字,分为2句。第一句重述题目中的观点:有些专家让孩子们从小学开始学习外语。第二句提出自己的观点:这样做产生的结果有好也有坏。第二句表明,本文即将采取双边讨论策略,即分析从小学开始学外语的好处和坏处。再如:

Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programmes (for example working for a charity, improving the neighbourhood or teaching sports to younger children). To what extent do you agree or disagree?(《剑桥雅思9, test 2

下面是该书给出的高分范文开头段:

It has been suggested that high school students should be involved in unpaid community services as a compulsory part of high school programmes. Most of the colleges are already providing opportunities to give work experience, however these are not compulsory. In my opinion, sending students to work in community services is a good idea as it can provide them with many sorts of valuable skills.

本段共65字,分为3句。第一句重述题目观点,第二句指出现象,第三句给出自己的观点。第三句表明,本文即将采取一边倒策略,即讨论孩子从事免费社会服务工作到底能给他们带来哪些技能。

重述题目内容时,建议考生不要照搬原文,而是要对原文进行改写。改写的方法通常有:同义词替换、主动句和被动句转换、改变主语(因此改变句型)、适当提供细节。以下来看几个例子。

例1 题目句Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programmes...(《剑桥雅思9, test 2

改写句It has been suggested that high school students should be involved in unpaid community services as a compulsory part of high school programmes...

这里的改写有:

(1) 将题目中的主动句some people believe that...改成了被动句it has been suggested that...

(2) 将题目从句中的主语unpaid community service改成了high school students,由此导致后面的谓语动词及句型调整。

例2 题目句Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able to buy the same products anywhere in the world.(《剑桥雅思10, test 3

改写句It is said that countries are becoming similar to each other because of the global spread of the same products, which are now available for purchase almost anywhere.

这里的改写有:

(1)套加了it is said that...句型。

(2)将题目because引导的从句变成了because of+名词+which引导的非限定性定于从句。

例3 题目句:In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies. (200806)

改写句It is quite common these days for young people in many countries to have a break from studying after graduating from high school. The trend is not restricted to rich students who have the money to travel, but is also evident among poorer students who choose to work and become economically independent for a period of time.

这里的改写有:

(1)套加了it is quite common for...to do...句型。

(2)提供了young people的两种类型:rich students and poor students,指出两类学生都在做have a break from studying的事情。

例4 题目句:In some countries, there has been an increase in the number of parents who educate their children themselves at home instead of sending them to school. 160213

改写句Contrary to the conventional practice of sending their kids to school, more and more parents today choose to educate their children themselves at home.

这里的改写有:

(1)将题目中的instead of sending them to school改为contrary to the conventional practice of sending their kids to school。

(2)将题目中的there be存在句型:there has been an increase in the number of parents who educate their children themselves...,改为主动句型:more and more parents choose to educate their children themselves at home。

例5 题目句:More and more people are using mobile phones and computers to communicate. Therefore, they are losing the ability to communicate with each other face to face. To what extent do you agree or disagree?161126

改写句We live in a world where communication through modern technologies such as the smart phone and computer is so prevalent that it’s hard to go anywhere without seeing someone texting, emailing, writing blogs, and tweeting.

这里的改写有:

(1)将题目中More and more people are using mobile phones and computers...这一句型置换为 改写We live in a world where communication through modern technologies such as the smart phone and computer is so prevalent...

(2)将题目中to communicate细节化为someone texting, emailing, writing blogs, and tweeting.

练习:改写下面的题目,写出第一段。

第一段:(1)In many countries women are allowed to take maternity leave from their jobs during the first months after the birth of their baby. Does advantages outweigh disadvantages?(181013)

第一段:(2)Some people think that instead of preventing climate change, we need to find a way to live with it. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(160716)

第一段:(3)With the increasing demand for energy sources of oil and gas, people should look for sources of oil and gas in remote and untouched places. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of damaging such areas? (220625)

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