TOEFL考试阅读做完后应该怎么总结

所有考试阅读考察的都是词/句/段落三个维度的内容。

三者的能力不见得是递进的增加的, 换句话说,句子题做的好的人,不代表词汇就掌握的扎实,会有同学阅读已经能28+ 了,但是词汇题还在错的。

同时要强调的是,词汇题的对错也不代表词汇量的高低,因为阅读的词汇题一般考察的不是这个单词你是不是认识,而是这个单词在语境中的意思你是不是能明白,而这种题最讨厌的是选项里的几个解释可能都是这个单词的字典意思,所以有时候选项间还是有一定迷惑度的。

一个对于阅读能力更好的界定可能是来自于分数,而不是错的题型(某个题型如果要提高正确率的话,多做相关的题型就好,比如词汇题错得多,就记一下TOEFL 阅读的常见词汇题词汇;如果句子简化题错的多的话,就多练句子简化题就好。)。

一般我们会认为:

  • 阅读分数20以下的考生,语言能力关还没过,这时候一定要踏实的记忆下单词,不仅仅是词汇题单词,而是针对整个TOEFL 阅读的单词;
  • 阅读分数20以上的,但在23左右徘徊的考生,大致的词句能力解决了,但还是对于一些考到的点有理解不到位的地方,这个人群可以过一下词汇题的考察词汇,既然是23左右的分数,那大概率还说每一篇文章都是会有错题的,所以这时候每一篇文章都值得积累下自己不认识的单词,读不懂的句子;概括下每段话的额意思,分析下文章结构。简单说就是每一篇文章有必要做下精读;也可以看下是不是有某一个类型的文章(比如历史或者天文学之类的)是自己做的比较差的,可以针对这个话题多练习些文章。
  • 分数稳定到25以上的,词句的问题理论上过了,如果有遇到相关词汇错题的,积累下就好。这时候可以着重看下是哪一个类型的题目自己错的比较多,有必要的话,可以题型针对性的提高下。这个分数段的同学在争取满分的路上主要做题为主,一般错题不多,分析的时候也不见得要精读文章。如果要保证自己到满分的话,可以练习的时候4篇或者更多练着做,保证如果出现阅读加试的时候,也能适应那个阅读强度。

以下要演示的是做完题目以后如何比较完整的分析一篇文章,以56 的 Representative Government in Colonial North America 这篇文章为例

# 词汇

这个部分里面可以把自己陌生的单词【除了具体名词】都摘抄出来。并且加上阅读文本对应的例句;如果是词汇题的单词的话,不仅仅要记录下来对应的正确答案,也要写下来其他选项【复习的时候要清楚对自己有干扰的选项是什么】

比如在这个文本里面有考到一个单词compelling

原文 Eventually, their advice became so compelling that the king could not reject it: and the representatives of the people, organized as a legislature known as the House of Commons, became the most powerful branch of the English government.

题目 The word "compelling" in the passage is closest in meaning to

fashionable/ forceful/helpful/clear

# 句子

这部分可以放在分析过程中看到比较难理解的句子,同时翻译下相关句子。如果有错句子简化题或者句子插入题的也可以放到这个部分,因为这两个类型的题目,本质上考察的是对于句子和句子间关系的理解能力。

比如这篇里有个插入题

原文The assemblies of American colonial representatives were more democratic. ◼︎ Although every colony had property qualifications for voting, probably the great majority of adult white males owned enough land to meet them. ◼︎ Moreover, the system for apportioning representation was more balanced. ◼︎ New England colonies gave every town the right to send delegates to the legislature. ◼︎ Outside New England, the unit of representation was usually the county. The political organization of new counties and the extension of representation seldom kept pace with the rapid advance of settlement westward, but nowhere was representation so uneven or irrational as in England.

插入句子 This development occurred primarily for two reasons.

这个题目的提示词在于This development 说明前句子有提到某个发展,另外个线索是 two reasons,所以插入地方一定在具体展开两个reasons 的前面。综上插入的地方是在第一个框 ◼︎。如果这个题目做错,首先要分析下当时自己为什么觉得是在另外一个地方,这一步很重要,不要看到正确答案以后,唯一的反思就是“这个答案很明显啊,自己当时怎么没注意呢?” 这个分析有点对于过去的自己不够尊重,对于后续做题的帮助不大。

如果错了目的题或者细节题的,可以看到错误的原因是什么,如果是单词不明白导致错的,就放到上面词的部分就好,如果是有句子意思没理解好的,也可以放到这部分。

# 段落

先可以找出每个段落的中心句

这个中心句有时候在第一句,比如

The assemblies of American colonial representatives were more democratic. Although every colony had property qualifications for voting, probably the great majority of adult white males owned enough land to meet them.Moreover, the system for apportioning representation was more balanced.New England colonies gave every town the right to send delegates to the legislature.....

也有的时候是在中间,一般是在转折词的后面,比如

English people brought with them to the New World the political ideas that still give English and American government a close resemblance. But American colonists very early developed conceptions of representative government that differed from those in England. Representative government in England originated in the Middle Ages, when the king called for men to advise him. They were chosen by their neighbors and informed the king of his subjects' wishes. ....

也有时候是在最后一句, 比如

At first, the House of Commons consisted of representatives from each county, or shire, and from selected boroughs. Over the centuries many of these boroughs became ghost towns with only a handful of inhabitants, and great towns sprang up where none had existed before. .... But nothing was done to improve it; in fact, a theory was devised to justify it. A member of the House of Commons, it was said, represented not the people who chose him but the whole country: and he was not responsible for any particular constituency. Not all Englishmen could vote for representatives, but all were virtually represented by every member of the Commons.

中心句不管在哪里,最大的特点是这个段落里的其他句子都意思上指向它,它不指向其他句子。

这个练习的作用是比较好的明确某段话要说的意思,对于理解段落和段落间的关系有帮助。

然后概括下每一个段落意思【确保意思确实是读明白了的】,会有中心句找对了,但是哪怕是这个中心句意思也是云里雾里的情况,翻译不是考察中文能力,而是确保段落意思确实理解了。所以用自己的英文表达来重新概括下段话也是可以的。

整理下几段话之间的关系。这个对于做最后一题会有帮助。

# 话题

最后一步是话题,如果觉得这个美国历史类的自己好像错的比较多,或者就是单纯对于这个话题有兴趣,就可以稍微去查一下相关的资料。

做完TOEFL 阅读后,我是如何总结的

文章设定的时间点是1750年前,所以以上的州都还不全,可以具体看下地图里标注的时间。

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