托福考场上遇到社会类话题应该怎么办?

对于托福独立写作考试来说,社会类话题虽然不是出题频率最高的一类,但是此类话题对于考生来说难度较大。

社会类话题可以涉及的角度有经济、教育、灾难、医疗等,都是非常高频的角度。

但是,由于对话题不够熟悉以及个人阅历不足,同学们看到题目之后往往并不能立刻搭建出一个清晰的思路。即使确立了自己的观点,也发现无论哪方立场自己都无法拿出足够的论据来支撑自己的观点,想到具有说服力的解释和举例则更有难度。

写作过程中也很容易出现词穷的情况,不知道如何用英语表达清楚,绞尽脑汁凑字数。同时,同学们还会出现找不到例子,导致通篇都是大话空话而没有具体事例的情况。

那么究竟应该怎样应对社会类话题呢?

因为社会类话题本身出题的频率并不高,所以老师建议同学们首先要结合一些社会类话题的代表题目进行专门的思路拓展以及素材语料的积累。

练习在面对此类话题时可以快速思考分论点的方法(例如,固定从社会和个体两个角度,或者是人文发展和经济发展两个角度来展开)。

其次,要有针对性的积累专用词汇和短语,尤其是涉及到政府、医疗、战争、文化、环保、等一些世界性议题,且话题难题明显较大的题目。

最后,同学们需要结合具体题目思考并练习写例子,提前准备好几个例子来应对一些常见的社会类话题。

在表达的过程中一定要避免用词“假大空”,而要尽可能具体化自己的表述,加入大量的细节信息。

常见的社会类话题的真题

01、l World hunger is a complicated issue that has been frequently discussed but not resolved. Some people believe the problem can only be addressed by wealthy governments and large companies. Other people believe that each one of us can actually do something to solve the problem of hunger. Which opinion do you agree with? Why?

02、l Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The rapid growth of cities can be seen as a positive development of society.

03、l Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important problems in today’s world will be solved in our lifetime.

04、l Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should buy things made in their own country, even if the price is higher than the things made elsewhere.

05、l Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The government should spend money on the construction of new buildings rather than on the preservation of old buildings.

06、l Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for the government to provide money for things that are beautiful than things that are practical.

07、l Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Some agriculture methods damage the environment, but providing the food for the increasing number of population is important than protecting the environment.

例题解析

下面老师就以其中一道社会类话题的独立写作真题为例,给同学们做一个具体示范。

解析:

“世界饥饿是一个反复被讨论但却无法完全被解决的复杂问题。有些人认为这个问题只能靠有钱的政府和大企业来解决。而其他人相信我们每一个人都能够为解决饥饿问题做些力所能及的事情。你同意哪种意见?为什么?”

本道题目的讨论主题是“world hunger”,这在一些贫困国家和地区仍然是一个世界性的议题。根据世界卫生组织在2019年6月发布的报告,2018年全球仍然有8.2亿人处于饥饿之中,相比2017年足足增长了900万人。当然,回到题目本身,这也是一个讨论范围非常宽泛的话题。很多同学如果是第一次看到这个题目,一定会感到角度和思路都难以展开。老师建议同学们在审题时首先要注意结合题目中出现的两个观点并分别思考各自的优势和劣势在哪里。

如果靠政府和企业缓解,从经济层面上来说,优势自然是有足够的资源,包括财力、物力、人力以及一系列在这个过程中需要用到的各种资源。同时,一个富裕的政府和企业通常也是依靠了来自各界的帮助,所以他们从道德层面上来说也应该pay back。更重要的是,很多饥饿问题究其根源都是环境和气候问题,所以就更需要政府和一些有社会责任感的大企业的帮助了。

如果是靠我们每一个普通民众的力量,那个优势就在于我们有更强的同情心和共情能力。因为那些饱受饥饿之苦的人们也和我们一样都是普普通通的人。我们有机会更加近距离地接触到他们。

而两个观点的劣势也是和双方各自的优势相对应的。即普通民众的力量有限,而政府和企业的帮助可能缺少人文关怀。

段落示范:

下面我们来看老师完整的段落示范

First and foremost, government intervention seems to be the easiest yet most effective way to reduce hunger and poverty on a national, even global scale. With abundant resources, social responsibility, and law enforcement, governments will undoubtedly become the leading force in fighting poverty, hunger, and under-nutrition. For example, President Obama launched a global food security initiative called Feed the Future as one of the first foreign policy acts after taking the office. He pledged to mobilize at least $3.5 billion toward global food security in 2009. With the involvement of 11 government agencies, the campaign is now delivering results that can change the face of poverty and hunger for some of the world’s most impoverished families. Nearly 7 million farmers and 12.5 million children are being saved and benefited globally. Farmers now have applied new technologies to have higher yields while children have enough food to fuel their minds and bodies. Therefore, it is way better for governments to take care of the world hunger problem.

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