从128篇文章提取出来的几个结构例子

关于结构最近看到一个“自恋”的说法,叫做提高文字的“乐感”(musical language)

People naturally remember musical language, .... When you’re writing, think about repetition and variety. Crescendos and rests. Pace and punctuation. Read your work out loud, and feel the rhythm of the words in your voice.

很多的所谓“乐感”很抽象,但是重复和多样( repetition and variety)是我们写作的时候比较常规用到的。要制造“乐感”,比较重要的是要在重复和多样之间找到平衡,不能太重复了,显得单调,也不能太多样了,显得乱。

而我们看文章的结构,有的时候就是从别人的文字里面去感受到一个合适的平衡。

一个比较典型的找到重复和多样之间的平衡的例子是并列或者平行。

并列或者平行在结构上制造了重复,这个让读者接受信息会比较快,同时内容上是不同的。以此制造了重复多样之间的平衡。

句间或者句内制造平行的方式很多, 句内的平行比较常用的是几个动词的并列,比如

... language helps us to capture them in our net, pin them down and begin analyzing them.

下面的例子主要是句间的平行

# 1  重复同一个句子结构,实现平行

So, of course you don’t like us. We were carefree and exuberant, while you are dour and anxious. We had Woodstock; you have safe spaces. ....

High school taught me big words. College rewarded me for using big words. Then I graduated and realized that intelligent readers outside the classroom don’t want big words. They want complex ideas made simple.

Fairchild Semiconductor ruled in the 1950s but now exists only in books. In 1983 IBM was America’s most profitable firm but eight years later was loss-making after botching the move from mainframes to pcs. Nokia, once seemingly invincible in mobile devices, fumbled the shift to smartphones.

At its best, Silicon Valley is optimistic. At its worst, it is so naïve it believes its own hogwash. Throughout her trial, Ms. Holmes’s lawyers argued she was simply a wide-eyed believer.

.... we have an ardent Catholic, a lapsed Catholic, a few Jews of variable piety, and a smattering of Protestants of different denominations; we have members who are white, black and East Asian in background... we have some members who have multiple advanced degrees and others who have not yet finished college. Yet despite or perhaps because of this mix of voices, the feeling of the reading is convivial and intellectually alive.

Before there was a “metaverse,” before there were crypto millionaires, before nearly every kid in America wanted to be an influencer, the most-hyped thing in tech was “nanotechnology.” ...

How crazy is the money sloshing around in start-up land right now?

It’s so crazy that more than 900 tech start-ups are each worth more than $1 billion. In 2015, 80 seemed like a lot.

It’s so crazy that hot start-ups no longer have to pitch investors for money. The investors are the ones pitching them.

It’s so crazy that founders can start raising money on a Friday afternoon and have a deal closed by Sunday night.

It’s so crazy that even sports metaphors fall short.

Think of a time when you heard a piece of music and wanted to cry. Or recall the flutter of your heart as you stared at a delicate, uncannily lifelike sculpture. Or maybe your dizziness as you emerged from a narrow side street in an unfamiliar city and found yourself in a beautiful town square...

America in 2022 is an exhausting place to live. Pretty much everyone I know is tired. We’re tired of answering work emails after dinner. We’re tired of caring for senior family members in a crumbling elder care system, of worrying about a mass shooting at our children’s schools. We’re tired by unprocessed grief and untended-to illness and depression. We’re tired of wildfires becoming a fact of life in the West, of floods and hurricanes hitting the South and East. We’re really tired of this unending pandemic.

## 2 通过列举点实现平行

Psychologists are split. The case for the defence is that this is just another moral panic. .... Furthermore, defenders argue, the criteria used to diagnose gaming addiction are too loose. .....

The Theranos debacle fails as an indictment of venture capital for two reasons. First, nearly all the money raised by the company came not from venture capitalists but from technology outsiders. ...

Second, the handful of famous technology investors who did back Theranos do not discredit venture capital as a whole. ...

### 3 通过 “让步 + 观点” 实现平行

... defenders argue, the criteria used to diagnose gaming addiction are too loose. .....

The prosecution retorts that, unlike rock bands or novelists, games developers have both the motive and the means to engineer their products to make them irresistible.

Such proposals share an assumption that offenses such as “ideological coercion” or “racist behaviors, incidents, research, and publication” could be eliminated if relevant authorities had the power and the will. But within most institutions in a free, diverse, pluralistic society are earnest, intractable disputes about what constitutes racism or indoctrination.

In theory, no one objects to the inclusion of all “relevant and important context” in instruction. In practice, what’s “relevant and important” are subjective questions that everyone answers in different ways.

The conventional wisdom on changing habits goes something like this: You can change if you really want to. ...

Now, as anyone who has ever tried anything might suspect, it sure seems like that idea might be bullshit. Or at least, many researchers have concluded that it does not account for an enormous amount of observed human behavior, according to the psychologist Wendy Wood.

To be sure, I am not advocating for the elimination of joy from work. Working for pay can be tedious, disappointing, even crushing, and having meaningful work is one way to make the hours pass more pleasurably. But the solution to those challenges should not necessarily be to position work as a centerpiece of our identity.

句间平行最常用的还是通过句子结构的重复来实现(上面第一种),一定意义上来说,第2/3 类的方式,也是有重复句子结构的。所以未来写作的时候,当内容是类似的时候,切忌不断地用不同的句子结构去表达,这样读上去反而会觉得乱。

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