GRE阅读里的Prohibition是个什么时代

在GRE阅读中,禁酒令相关话题出现过几次。

禁酒令时代是美国历史上一个禁止制造、销售和运输酒精饮料的时期。它从1920年持续到1933年,由美国宪法第18条修正案强制执行。禁酒令受到节制运动的影响,该运动基于道德和宗教原因主张戒酒。然而,许多美国人继续非法饮酒,在有组织犯罪控制下形成了一个酒类黑市。禁酒时代还产生了社会和经济影响,如犯罪率上升、腐败、暴力、公共卫生问题和税收损失。1933年第21条修正案的批准结束了禁酒时代,该修正案废除了第18条修正案,恢复了酒精的合法地位。

禁酒令的原因有很多。首先是来自节制团体和宗教团体的压力,他们认为饮酒不道德,有害社会。其次是进步人士希望改革社会问题,改善公共卫生和安全。同时大企业家进行游说,他们认为酒精威胁工人生产力和效率。

遏制由于过度饮用导致的暴力行为尤其是家庭暴力也是一个重要原因。当时很多女性团体支持禁酒,但态度也有差异。有一篇GRE阅读讨论的就是不同女性团体之间对禁酒令的不同态度。

Recognizing that the issue of alcohol reform led many women in the United States to become politically active, historians have generally depicted women as a united force behind Prohibition (legislation banning alcoholic beverages, adopted in 1919 and repealed in 1933). (历史学家通常觉得女性团结一致要求禁酒。)In fact, however, women were divided over Prohibition.(但实际上女性是有分歧的。) The Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), claiming to speak for all women's interests, argued that Prohibition protected family life, but the Women's Organization for National Prohibition Reform (WONPR), while advocating temperance, objected to government regulation of private behavior and argued that the widespread disregard for law fostered by Prohibition undermined social order.(WCTU主张禁酒令保护了家庭生活,但是WONPR虽然提倡节制,但反对政府干预私生活,而且认为禁酒令主张了对法律的无视,反而破坏了社会秩序。) By opposing the WCTU's position, WONPR members demonstrated that women were independent in their political thinking, yet even those historians who have discussed the WONPR have failed to recognize this fact. (WONPR表明女性的政治思想是互相独立多样的,但即便是研究这个群体的学者也忽视了这一点。)Early studies represented WONPR members as puppets of male brewers, while more recent studies have concluded that the WONPR was a satellite of the similarly minded all-male Association Against the Prohibition Amendment (AAPA), with which the WONPR did work closely, but by no means in a subordinate role. (早期研究觉得WONPR反对禁酒是因为她们是男性酿酒者的傀儡,而更晚近的研究表明WONPR是另一个全部为男性的反禁酒团体的关联组织,他们紧密合作,但绝不仅处在从属地位。)

禁酒令影响了各个方面。商业上,它影响了房地产、娱乐、农业和运输等行业和部门。税收上,禁酒令严重减少了联邦和州政府的税收收入,因为他们失去了酒类税收的主要来源。这造成了预算赤字和公共债务的增加。禁酒令还创造了许多漏洞和豁免,使人们可以合法或半合法地获得酒精。例如,药剂师可以为医疗目的开出威士忌处方,宗教团体可以将酒用于圣事,个人可以为个人使用制作有限数量的葡萄酒或苹果酒。禁酒令导致了普遍腐败,执法官员、政治家、法官和其他公众人物被私酒商和黑帮分子贿赂或胁迫,无视或协助非法活动。许多禁酒令工作人员也参与了走私或勒索计划。禁酒令催生了主导非法酒类贸易的有组织犯罪网络。他们使用暴力、恐吓和谋杀来保护自己的利益和消灭对手。他们还扩展到其他非法业务,如赌博、卖淫和毒品。阿尔·卡彭、卢西亚诺和舒尔茨等是一些最臭名昭著的犯罪头目。

在另一篇GRE阅读中具体探讨了禁酒令对于美国西岸爵士音乐发展的影响。

Early in the twentieth century, San Francisco was the main venue for African American jazz musicians on the West Coast of the United States.(早期旧金山是主场。) Musical activity was centered in a district known as the Barbary Coast, where an abundance of nightclubs provided ample work opportunities for local players and drew musicians and other entertainers, many of them African American, from throughout the country.(这里有很多夜店,有很多给音乐从业者的工作机会。) In 1921, as part of its Prohibition-era efforts, the government closed the Barbary Coast. (结果禁酒令影响下,政府把这个地方关了。)This closure was the decisive event that established Los Angeles as the premier center for jazz on the West Coast. (这是一个决定性事件,导致洛杉矶成为了新的主场。) Once the Barbary Coast was shut down, it became far harder for jazz musicians to make a living in San Francisco; thus, many headed south to Los Angeles. (原因是关闭以后音乐家找不找工作就一路向南了。)

有大量影视作品描绘了禁酒时期。

电视剧方面比较有名的是《大西洋帝国》。这部电视剧讲述了Nucky Thompson的兴衰,他是一个腐败的政客,在禁酒令期间控制着大西洋城及其非法酒类贸易,跟其他犯罪分子比如阿尔·卡彭和卢西亚诺等合作和斗争。

GRE阅读里的Prohibition是个什么时代

在电影方面,比较有名的《美国往事》讲述了一群犹太黑帮在禁酒令期间和之后在纽约市兴衰的故事。

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