USAD美国学术十项全能ECONOMICS经济教学大纲

ECONOMICS

An Introduction to Economics and Colonial and Early American Economic History

  1. FUNDAMENTALECONOMIC CONCEPTS 10%
    1. Basic Assumptions ofEconomics
      1. Scarcity
      2. Trade-offs
      3. OpportunityCost
      4. Rationality
      5. Gains fromTrade
    2. Models and EconomicTheory
    3. Positive and NormativeEconomics
    4. Efficiency as a Goal
    5. Microeconomics andMacroeconomics
  1. MICROECONOMICS 40%
    1. Perfectly CompetitiveMarkets
      1. Markets
      2. Demand
      3. Shifts in the DemandCurve
        1. Income
        2. The Prices of RelatedGoods
        3. Tastes
        4. Expectations
        5. Number ofBuyers
      4. Supply
      5. Shifts in the SupplyCurve
        1. InputPrices
        2. Technology
        3. Expectations
        4. Number ofSellers
      6. Equilibrium
      7. The Characteristics of Competitive MarketEquilibrium
    2. Applications of the Competitive MarketModel
      1. Changes in MarketEquilibrium
      2. Elasticity
      3. Using Elasticity
    3. Evaluating Government Policy: The Impact of Price Controls andTaxes
      1. PriceControls
      2. Taxes
    4. InternationalTrade
      1. An Isolated Economy
      2. Adding the Opportunity toTrade
  1. Comparative Advantage and the Gains fromTrade
  2. The Political Economy ofTrade
  1. The Profit Motive and the Behavior ofFirms
    1. Economic Profits and AccountingProfits
    2. Finding the Firm’s SupplyCurve
    3. Entry, Exit, and the Market SupplyCurve
  2. ImperfectCompetition
    1. Monopoly
    2. Monopoly Supply
    3. Welfare Consequences ofMonopoly
    4. Dealing withMonopolies
    5. PriceDiscrimination
    6. Oligopoly
    7. MonopolisticCompetition
  3. Creative Destruction: The Profit Motive and the Sources of EconomicChange
  4. MarketFailures
    1. Externalities
    2. The Effect of Externalities on ResourceAllocation
    3. Private Responses toExternalities
    4. Government Regulation ofExternalities
    5. PropertyRights
    6. The Effects of PrivateOwnership
    7. Public and PrivateGoods
      1. PrivateGoods
      2. CommonResources
      3. CollectiveGoods
      4. PublicGoods
    8. Institutions, Organizations, andGovernment
      1. Pork BarrelPolitics
      2. Rent-Seeking
      3. What Is the Proper Role forGovernment?
  • MACROECONOMICS 30%
    1. Macroeconomic Issues
      1. Economic Growth and LivingStandards
      2. Recessions andExpansions
      3. Unemployment
      4. Inflation
      5. InternationalTrade
    2. MacroeconomicMeasurement
      1. Measuring Total Output: Gross DomesticProduct
        1. MarketValue
        2. Final Goods andServices
        3. Within aCountry
        4. During a SpecifiedPeriod
  1. Understanding What GDPMeasures
  2. Other Ways to Measure GDP: Expenditures EqualProduction
  3. Yet Another Way to Measure GDP: Income Equals ProductionEquals Expenditures
  4. RealGDP
  5. MeasuringInflation
  6. Unemployment
    1. FrictionalUnemployment
    2. StructuralUnemployment
    3. Cyclical Unemployment
  7. Economic Growth, Productivity, and LivingStandards
    1. The Circular Flow Model of theEconomy
    2. What Determines How Much an Economy Produces?
  8. Savings, Investment, and the Financial System
    1. FinancialMarkets
      1. The BondMarket
      2. The StockMarket
    2. FinancialIntermediaries
      1. Banks
      2. MutualFunds
    3. Saving and Investment in Aggregate
    4. International Capital Flows in an Open Economy
    5. How Financial Markets Coordinate Saving and InvestmentDecisions
  9. Money and Prices in the Long Run
    1. What IsMoney?
    2. MeasuringMoney
    3. The Federal Reserve System, Banks, and the Supply ofMoney
    4. Bank Runs
    5. Money and Inflation in the Long Run
    6. Why Worry aboutInflation?
  10. Short-Run EconomicFluctuations
    1. Characteristics of Short-RunFluctuations
    2. Potential Output, the Output Gap, and the Natural Rate ofUnemployment
    3. Explaining Short-Run Fluctuations inOutput
    4. The Aggregate DemandCurve
      1. WealthEffects
      2. Interest Rate Effects
      3. Foreign ExchangeEffects
    5. The Aggregate SupplyCurve
    6. The Keynesian Model of Short-RunFluctuations
    7. Inflation in the KeynesianModel
    8. Using Fiscal and Monetary Policy to Stabilize theEconomy
  1. COLONIAL AND EARLY AMERICANECONOMIC HISTORY 20%
    1. The Big Picture: North America as Part of the Larger BritishEmpire
      1. Mercantilism as an OrganizingFramework
  1. The Navigation Acts: An Important Element of British Mercantilist Policy inNorth America
  2. Income and Its Distribution in the Late ColonialPeriod
    1. ColonialIncomes
    2. Growth-Supporting Institutions andTechnology
    3. Indentured Servitude and Slavery
    4. Regional ResourceDifferences
    5. IncomeDistribution
  3. The Economics of the AmericanRevolution
    1. 1763, A Key TurningPoint
    2. British Revenue-Generating Policies and the Boston TeaParty
    3. The RevolutionaryWar
    4. Shay’sRebellion
      1. Early NationalPolicies
    5. The Articles ofConfederation
    6. TheConstitution
    7. Building the FinancialSystem
      1. Payment of the National Debt
      2. The First Bank of the United States(FBUS)
      3. Money in the NewNation
    8. Land Distribution, Transportation, and MarketExpansion
      1. Land DistributionPolicies
      2. Turnpikes
      3. CanalConstruction
      4. Steamboats
      5. Railroads
      6. The Growth ofManufacturing
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