如果提高英语写作的输出能力

不管是考试写作还是日常写作,重要的都是展开,而不是观点。

往往当我们展开没有思路的时候,会反思是写作能力太薄弱了。但有一派语言学观点认为(个人目前也比较认同的一个态度)所有的输出问题(output)都是输入(input)的问题;换句话说,当我们没有内容去输出(口语和写作),或者输出的外语内容(比如英语)比较受到母语的影响(比如所谓的中式英语)的时候,原因不是我们输出的不够,是我们输入的不够。这一点的具体研究证据以后有机会再说。

我们先假设这个观点是成立的。

那么如果要提高输出能力,不管是写作还是口语,都需要保持输入。以下是关于写作的两个展开片段的例子。一个是人物介绍,一个是事件描述。如果是成年学习者的话,对于这两个展开方式其实在概念上都是清楚的,但是在实操的时候往往还是会感慨没有内容。这个一定程度上说明了,在输出过程中内容还是比结构重要,比如结构上来说"先观点,然后For example 过渡,然后给具体细节支持”的这个结构都是懂的,但是就是展开不了,因为缺内容。

同样我们在输入的过程中,除了观察下范例的展开结构,内容更是值得学习模仿下的。

# 人物介绍

如果提高写作的输出能力

来自于NYT 的一篇文章,作者  Esau McCaulley,是NYT 的专栏作家,话题是作者写自己的AP 历史老师,里面有一个片段用例子的方式描述了这位历史老师。我们如果兴趣的,可以先自己就上面这个标题以自己的某位老师为例子,写一个小的段落,然后和下面的范例做个对比,这样从内容展开上可以比较好的找到自己客气去模仿提高的地方

Mrs. Bailey, who taught the class, from the beginning assured all of us that we could take the A.P. test, pass it, and get college credit. 【介绍人物,引入话题】College credit was no small thing. At the time, my sister was in her freshman year at Tuskegee. She would be the first person on either side of our family tree to receive her college degree. 【对比】 College credit as a high schooler seemed impossible, and when I protested that I didn’t have money to pay for the test, Mrs. Bailey helped locate the funding. 【老师给的帮助:和老师的第一次接触】 She held study sessions during lunch and after school, where we explored the often troubled and sometimes glorious history of this country. The day I found out my result on the test felt like a pivot point in my life. I had done well enough to receive college credit. 【故事结果】Mrs. Bailey told me: “You are a junior in high school and are smart enough to be in college. You can be whatever you want.” 【老师给的鼓励:和老师的第二次接触Suddenly, the world felt larger, my hazy future a little clearer. That class was the reason I majored in history with the goal of becoming a high school history teacher.【老师的影响 Mrs. Bailey did more than tell us we could do it. She was not mere sunshine and encouragement. She forced us to have opinions and defend them. And she was not alone. She was part of a cadre of teachers known for genuinely trying to get us to engage with the material and ourselves. Mr. Crump had us fumbling around in Plato’s cave. Mrs. Carter taught us the art of stringing sentences together and making coherent arguments. Mrs. Miller introduced us to literature that posed the ultimate questions. 【生命中其他的优秀老师】【这个衍生的部分如果是考试写作一般不建议,但是非考试写作,特别是字数要求比较多的,完全可以】

# 事件描述

如果提高写作的输出能力

这篇文章来自于Atlantic,说的是大学招生的事情,其中有一段说了对于大学生来说communication 能力的重要性,所以招生的时候要找有这个能力的高中人,然后描述了下高中生即兴演讲这个事件。

The most valuable skill I think any learner can have is the ability to express themselves with clarity and poise. [首句给观点] In formal high-school speech and debate, the students who work with extemporaneous speaking do just that: They learn about all aspects of current events and then, during competitions, are called up one by one to choose three questions randomly from a bowl. They must choose one of these three questions and then have 30 minutes to prepare a seven-minute extemporaneous speech complete with evidence. It’s an internet-free zone—no notes allowed. [关于即兴演讲过程的介绍结束] I wish that college applicants all had to log into a school website to provide a short video response to a provocative, extemporaneous question. ...

可以看到事件描述的时候,主要就是事件发展过程中的动作,这个是相比于上面的人物描述来说我们更少去留意的内容。如果刻意积累的话,可以读完理解上面的描述了以后,自己来试着描述下,然后把自己的和上文的比对下,以此来看到自己需要补缺的地方。

以上。

输入很重要,但输入只有到一定的量的累积了以后,才能产生输出。

所以保持输入:可以从读听一些自己感兴趣的内容开始。

当然如果是备考,就针对考试来练习就好。

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文书写作压力太大怎么办?

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